Wednesday, August 26, 2020
The Communist Manifesto was composed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which contained the entirety of the thoughts and presumptions by Marx. The Communist Manifesto had the option to motivate various rationalists and theorists.And as it was distributed at the tallness of the political disturbance in Europe, it likewise filled in as a motor for some upsets that occurred inside the previous century. Subsequently, following the distribution of the Communist Manifesto, it motivated various upheavals to topple the ascent of Capitalism, especially in Russia and China (Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist Manifesto,Ã¢â¬ n.p).The compositions by Marx and Engels which formed the primary precepts in the Communist Manifesto impacted upsets not by simply insignificant disturbance through composition; rather they energized progressive gatherings by defying the entrepreneur powers through the powers of the working classes. They found the uncommon job of the low classes, who they accepted were fit for ousting the entrepreneur class (Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist Manifesto,Ã¢â¬ n.p).The Communist Manifesto is fixated on class battle and proceeding with enmities in the general public. This as indicated by the Manifesto, class battle spins between the bourgeoisie and the proletarians Ã¢â¬ the oppressor and the persecuted; the couple of and many. Thus, the Manifesto predicts the plausible methods of disposing of mistreatment by canceling the essential factors that impel abuse Ã¢â¬ model: private property Ã¢â¬ which will in the end lead towards toppling the bourgeosie (Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist Manifesto,Ã¢â¬ n.p).In understanding with this interest, Marx drafted the Communist Manifesto guided by Historical Dialectical Materialism so as to call attention to the issues that had been expending the general public. Utilizing this guide, he anticipated the progressions that could occur in the general public as the method of creation changes gradually.And these progressions will turn into the motor for a progressive topple of the current overwhelming class. Also, as private enterprise will arrive at its pinnacle, it will get soaked and will in the end meet its end under the authority of the proletariats.The Pursuit of a Stateless SocietyConsequently, Marx noted expectations on a few factors that will help fabricate a stateless society. This incorporates: (1) authorization of dynamic tax assessment. (2) annulment of legacy, (3) leveling of wages and (4) the public assignment of terrains. In view of these things, Marx imagined a stateless society wherein threats among classes can be eliminated.However, there are different sides that are to be viewed if the general public ought to be changed. There are explicit levels wherein a nation should adapt to so as to adequately complete these sorts of changes which can end up being valuable for the citizens.Different nations may respond on specific conditions if things are to be forced on them. What's more, there ought to be clearness of the potential results that it might bring. Specifically, socialist nations had crumbled and has separated in the last decades.None of the socialist nations have supported its backbone, specifically, China and Russia. Also, for the instance of Cuba, their reality in the socialist domain has filled in for instance to no one.For the Communists, particularly for Marx, a stateless society implied the foundation of a tactless society and rendering basic responsibility for the methods for creations. It likewise involves impartial dissemination of pay among the residents. Notwithstanding, it requires various procedures and cycles that are to be attempted so as to accomplish it. Subsequently, the variables referenced above are the firsts on the rundown in achieving an uncouth society.As such, however these components that Marx referenced in the Manifesto may contribute incredibly towards the accomplishment of a stateless society, they may have negative ramifications in the society.There are sti ll drawbacks that are inferable with these means that may have direct impact in the development and advancement of the general public, and furthermore lies the likelihood that it might serve hindering results for them. Subsequently, these approaches ought to be broke down to evaluate their sensibility and sufficiency in the event that they can be valuable to the individuals in general.Thesis and ArgumentThe reason for this paper is cautiously examine the substance of the Manifesto, specifically, the four estimates that Marx proposed towards achieving a stateless society. Hence, the proposition of this paper is to demonstrate that there are enemies that might be caused if those measures will be utilized. What's more, that the sensibility of each measure relies upon the potential results that might be gotten from it.Hence, the contentions spin on three equal thoughts: (1) these measures whenever utilized, however may accelerate the way toward achieving a stateless society, may likewis e hinder social, political and monetary development; (2) incidentally, however a stateless society points towards dispensing with class hostilities, these four measures mentioned.Considerably builds the hole between the low classes and the bourgeosie by the purposeful dismissal of the bourgeosie class; and (3) given the philanthropic want from the Manifesto to kill neediness, the beliefs introduced through these measures were extremely optimistic and idealistic, consequently may render these wrong and not practical for the greater part of the countries.Progressive TaxationProgressive tax collection is one of the twelve estimates that Communism proposed to uphold. Dynamic tax assessment is a framework wherein charge rates are forced dependent on the monetary status and prosperity of the individual to be burdened. The expense rates are distinguished by the capacity of a person to pay. Generally, on the off chance that an individual acquires enormous, at that point he will be exposed t o higher assessment rates; a similar way that an individual who gains little will be burdened by his ability to pay (Lakoff and Budner, n.p).For the backers of Communism, progresive tax assessment can give redistribution of capital, which they accept can additionally hurry the way toward dispensing with class battle. Through this, it is accepted that redistributing the taxation rate towards the individuals who can stand to pay can balance out the progression of capital, and the economy consequently. What's more, progresive tax assessment additionally fills in as an observing gadget to constrain procurement of private property.Furthermore, progresive tax collection facilitates the weight for the individuals who can't pay empowering them to dispense a bigger part of their salary for their family's fundamental needs. Therefore, dynamic tax collection for the Communists render people to have an increasingly impartial result with the goal that they can make the most out of the their rewa rds for so much hard work (Ã¢â¬Å"Capitalism, Socialism and Communism,Ã¢â¬ n.p).Although there are sure advantages that are achievable through dynamic tax assessment, in like manner there are drawbacks of it. There are people who consider this sort of duty strategy as oppressive and inefficient.Progressive tax assessment is prejudicial in such away that the individuals who work more earnestly gets more constrained on settling higher charges; while the individuals who don't work and endeavor enough are being exposed to get government sponsorships and privileges.In expansion, it provides food wastefulness in the way burdens are being forced on people, while enduring pay misappropriation packaged by the State'sÃ¢ intentional impedance which is then interpreted in the resident's dread of intersection the edges among vote based system and fascism. (Ã¢â¬Å"Few Words on the Nature of Taxation.Ã¢â¬ n.p).Thus, as dynamic tax collection can in reality wipe out class battle and upgrade the capacity to make a stateless society through evenhanded sharing of assessment commitments, it additionally saddles the one-sided nature of the Communist government in their tendency towards the poor.Ã¢ Though it is discerning and sensible to force burdens on people who have higher ability to pay, certain contemplations are likewise should be given.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Compose an explanatory paper by making an examination question on a point talked about in Fast Food Nation? Answer: The book Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal was composed by Eric Schlosser who is an analytical writer by calling (Schlosser). The creator analyzes the impacts of different worldwide or potentially nearby impacts that the inexpensive food industry of United States of America has on the lives of the individuals. The book was from the outset gone in to a sequential of a similar name in the year 1999 by the Rolling Stone, and was adjusted into a movie of eh exact same name in the year 2006, which was coordinated by Richard Linklater. The book had such effect on the general mass that it has even been contrasted with the great novel The Jungle which was wrote by Upton Sinclair. The book has two conspicuous areas: the initial segment tilted as The American Way, portrays the beginning days of the inexpensive food industry of the United States Of America, remembering that the business has the post second world war days as its experience. The second 50% of the book titled as Basics depicts the procedure of motorization that the inexpensive food industry has experienced: in which the writer portrays the different concoction seasoning that are added to the cheap food being served nowadays, the procedure wherein the steers as well as the chicken that are served in these food developed and the dangers that are related with the utilization of this meet, the unfortunate condition wherein the laborers of the hamburger business are compelled to work: alongside the worldwide impact of this industry. In any case, the point that maybe draws the majority of the consideration is the place the creator addresses the showcasing approaches adjusted by the monsters of the cheap food industry that makes them focus on the juvenile kids as their potential clients. This examination being proposed will consider the different procedures that are embraced by the inexpensive food chains in baiting the youthful youngsters and its belongings (Haugen, Musser and Schlosser). Research question: What are the impacts of the advertising methodologies adjusted by the inexpensive food industry of the US on the wellbeing of the youthful kids? Sources used to address the inquiry: Source1: Trends in Exposure to Television Food Advertisements Among Children and Adolescents in the United States. Reference: Powell, Lisa M., Glen Szczypka, and Frank J. Chaloupka. Patterns in presentation to TV food promotions among youngsters and teenagers in the United States.Archives of pediatrics pre-adult medicine164.9 (2010): 794-802. Explanation: The article was distributed in the year 2010 in JAMA Pediatrics. This article presents an informational collection that has been set up by utilizing TV appraisals in order to look at the degree to which different food promotions are being focused to the young people in the United States of America. The investigation was directed for a time of 4 years during which all the information were gathered and dissected. Believability: The source is entirely trustworthy on the grounds that all the names of the writers, alongside their assignment have been given in the article. The article was distributed on the online variant of the JAMA Pediatrics in the year. The article additionally gives the sources from which their informational index was gathered. Help in responding to the exploration question: The paper gives a nitty gritty examination of the showcasing promotion approaches taken by inexpensive food associations and their substance, that focus on the youthful grown-ups and the offspring of the nation. Source 2: Health Effects of Media on Children and Adolescents Reference: Strasburger, Victor C., Amy B. Jordan, and Ed Donnerstein. Wellbeing impacts of media on youngsters and adolescents.Pediatrics125.4 (2010): 756-767. Explanation: The article gives a nitty gritty report on the impacts of media on the strength of kids. Validity: Highly Credible. Help in addressing the exploration question: Has no data about the impact of cheap food ads on kids, however has information identified with how youngsters are influenced by media marking all in all, which may be valuable. Source 3: The relationship between the topography of inexpensive food outlets and youth heftiness rates in Leeds, UK Reference: Fraser, Lorna K., and Kimberley L. Edwards. The relationship between the topography of inexpensive food outlets and youth weight rates in Leeds, UK.Health place16.6 (2010): 1124-1128. Explanation: The article gives a nitty gritty report on how the vicinity to cheap food affix is legitimately identified with the corpulence rates among youngsters. Validity: Highly Credible. Help in responding to the exploration question: The article measurably demonstrates that the closeness to cheap food chains expands the rate corpulence in kids and young people: the factual informational index will be useful in settling the examination question. Source 4: Associations of Television Content Type and Obesity in Children Reference: Zimmerman, Frederick J., and Janice F. Ringer. Relationship of TV content sort and corpulence in children.American Journal of Public Health100.2 (2010): 334. Explanation: Credibility: Highly Credible. Help in addressing the exploration question: The article features on the connection between the corpulence of the kids and the substance of the network shows as well as showcasing advancements that they are exposed to, which comprehension of which is basic to discover the responses to the examination question. Source 5: The Effects offast food on the Body Reference: Healthline,. 'Clinical Information Trusted Health Advice: Healthline'.Healthline.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 29 June 2015. Comment: The article gives a rundown of the evil impacts that cheap food has on human body. Believability: Published on a site, not truly dependable. Help in responding to the examination question: Not accommodating to addressing the inquiry straightforwardly, yet gives a rundown of the infections that happen because of unnecessary admission of cheap food. The materials refered to above show numerous worldwide looks into are being led in the area, in this manner the examination venture has an a lot more noteworthy possibility of being fruitful, whenever led the correct way.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Ecstasy Can Harm Fetus Development Addiction Drug Use Ecstasy/MDMA Print Ecstasy Can Harm Fetus Development By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on January 10, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 30, 2019 Sturti / Getty Images More in Addiction Drug Use Ecstasy/MDMA Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Hallucinogens Opioids Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Most women who are doing the drug Ecstasy will quit immediately when they find out there are pregnant. But, what about their unborn child before they found out? Can Ecstasy (MDMA) negatively affect a fetus in the very early stages of development? To find out, researchers at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago studied 21-day-old rat pups who were exposed to Ecstasy during a period corresponding to the first trimester of human pregnancy. Dr. Jack W. Lipton and colleagues injected eight pregnant rats twice daily with MDMA from day 14 through day 20 of pregnancy, a period corresponding to the first three months of human fetal development. The scientists injected saline twice daily during the same period to another eight pregnant control rats. The investigators then examined the brain tissue of the rat pups when they were 21 days old, which is equivalent to a two- to six-year-old child. Drastic Changes Observed Our most striking finding was that 21-day-old ecstasy-exposed pups had a 502-percent increase in the number of dopamine neuron fibers in the frontal cortex compared with control animals, said Dr. Lipton. Abnormal or overly numerous connections in the frontal cortex may result in aberrant signaling there, possibly resulting in abnormal behavior. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that carries messages between nerve cells and plays a role in a number of different motivated behaviors such as sex, eating, and drug use. Important functions such as attention, planning, and impulse control are associated with the brains frontal cortex. Do You Know How Your Brain Is While on MDMA? Gender Differences in Vulnerability? The study also revealed smaller but similar in dopamine fibers in the brain area involved in locomotion and reward and the primary site of action of rewarding stimuli, the nucleus accumbens. Ecstasy-exposed pups also showed modest decreases in dopamine metabolism in brain structures that play key roles in reward, addiction, learning, and movement. There also was a reduction in serotonin metabolism. Serotonin also is a brain chemical that helps to regulate mood, sleep, and appetite, Lipton reported. Interestingly, the researchers also found gender differences from Ecstasy exposure. While reductions in dopamine and serotonin metabolism were observed in the nucleus accumbens of males, these same effects were not seen in female pups. Behavioral Changes Seen The Chicago study also revealed behavioral changes in the animals. When the Ecstasy-exposed pups were placed in a new environment away from their littermates, they spent significantly more time exploring, signifying they did not adjust as easily to the new environment as the control animals, the authors said. Our findings show that exposing rats to Ecstasy at a time of prenatal development that correlates with the first trimester in humans may result in lasting changes in brain chemistry and behavior, said Dr. Lipton. Our findings also suggest that MDMA exposure may result in hyperactivity or deficits in attention or learning. Further research is needed to learn more about the effects of prenatal exposure to this drug. The study, funded in part by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research has also linked Ecstasy use in the third trimester of pregnancy to learning impairments and neurobiological changes. Mind-Bending Facts About the Drug Ecstasy (MDMA)
Sunday, May 24, 2020
and investigators can become overvalued at the expense of more solid investigations. But in the realms of research, technology transfer, and non-core education, that universities have generally been more aware of the potential conflict with their traditional values. Overall Bok is quite skeptical of the promise of non-core education as a revenue generator for major universities and is basically afraid that these areas of revenue enhancement will go the way of athletics, becoming so ingrained into institutional practice that there is no way to govern them within the framework of such value. He noted that Ã¢â¬Å"all the brave talk of rendering residential campuses obsolete seems definitely prematureÃ¢â¬ (p. ) but after reading Chapter 5 I believeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Having summarized the most likely areas of commercialization on campus, Bok spends the second half of the book explaining why and how the process leads to damaging consequences for many schools, and suggests how to avoid them. Bok lists three main dangers of commercialization: undermining academic values, damaging the academic community, and risks to institutional and professional reputations. Curriculum, he says, should be shaped by faculty, and not influenced unduly by political sentiment, powerful regents, or wealthy donors. The profit motive shifts this focus from supplying the best learning experience toward raising prices and cutting costs without losing customers. Such behavior sets the wrong example for students. Helping to develop virtue and build character have been central aims of education since the time of Plato and Aristotle. After years of neglect, universities everywhere have rediscovered the need to prepare their students to grapple with the moral dilemmas they will face in their personal and professional lives. In colleges and professional schools alike, courses on practical ethics are now a common feature of the curriculum (p. 109). He states in his bookÃ¢â¬â¢s pre face, Ã¢â¬Å"I worry that commercialization may be changing the nature of academic institutions in ways we will come to regret. By trying so hard toShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Five Phases of a LPO Relationship1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Five Phases of a LPO Relationship A new model of legal outsourcing is radically reshaping the role of different business functions such as human resources and call centers. 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Piaget traced his constructivist roots to Kant but PiagetRead MoreIntroduction And Design Of The Study3388 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesOver the last few decades information technology has played an important role in Indian economy. It has affected all the industries especially the banking industry and has provided a way for the banks to differentiate their products and services. The traditional way of financial services delivered to customers called the branch based operations which had been used by the banks for more than 200 years, has been replaced by the advent of multiple technol ogies and application. For instance, AutomatedRead MoreIntroduction And Design Of The Study3388 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesOver the last few decades information technology has played an important role in Indian economy. It has affected all the industries especially the banking industry and has provided a way for the banks to differentiate their products and services. The traditional way of financial services delivered to customers called the branch based operations which had been used by the banks for more than 200 years, has been replaced by the advent of multiple technologies and application. For instance, AutomatedRead MoreEssay on Technology in the Classroom: Elluminate Live1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesElluminate Live The VLE teacher technology tool selected is Elluminate Live. This technology is easy to use, flexible and a very effective tool for online learning. In utilizing synchronous learning, the student will feel less isolated and more motivated to participate. There will be contact with both the facilitator and other students. Elluminate Live is used in real-time and functions within a collaborative environment supported through demonstration. Participants have access to many featuresRead MoreCultural Implications of Transfer of Hr Practices in Mncs5373 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesTransfer of Human Resource Management Practices in Multinational Corporations: A Perspective Authors Dr. Daleep Parimoo Associate Professor, School of Business Studies Sharda University, Greater Noida, U.P firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Fehmina Khalique Research Scholar at Sharda University and Visiting Faculty At Global Institute of Information Technology Greater Noida, U.P email@example.com Abstract: With the advent of globalization and liberalization, the
Thursday, May 14, 2020
What If the entertainment that people indulged in was suddenly taken away in a flash and replaced by what the government believes is more appropriate? Government censorship is a hot topic that has surfaced once again. Many citizens of the country believe that the government should get involved in the censoring of video games, because many crimes committed by youths have been linked to violent video games, or so it seems. The truth is that there has never been any case declaring that there is a link between the two. Government censorship is not the answer to solving this problem. Although, the opposition does have a valid point: children shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be allowed to purchase games that they are not old enough to understand on an emotional andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Censorship is an extreme solution for an issue like this. Censorship is the act of someone supervising the manners or morality of others (Coleman). Morality is all opinionated though, just like peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s view s on videogames. Many adults would most likely care less if games were censored because they had no interest in them in the first place. On the other hand, there is an abundance of adults who enjoy games on a regular basis. It is in supporters of game censorshipÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions that censoring mature content of games will protect their children from the game. In a way though, it is sometimes the parents fault if their children play it anyway. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s illegal for stores to sell adult games to minors (ESRB). Therefore if a child is playing an adult game, then it is possible that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent is the one who accidentally bought it for them. If this is the case, then the game developers are not at fault, but rather the parent is for buying it in the first place. The censorship of games is an idea that will remove many citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to freedom of choice and expression. If a game developer wants to make a violent game intended for an adult audience, then they sh ould be allowed to do so. Developers have the same rights as every other person in the country, so removing their rights to create is a crime in itself. The International Game Developers Association (IGDA) have said in an official statement: Limiting forms of expression in video games limits the expression ofShow MoreRelatedThe Offshoring Debate in a Small Organization1994 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesrisks involved in outsourcing, risks that go far beyond the boundary of the single organization in questions. There are a number of major benefits of outsourcing. Smaller companies can dabble in outsourcing, but often not so much in offshoring, which often requires higher initial costs despite the overall costs savings (Kumar Salzer 2010). 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Euphemisms are words or phrases which can not be understood literally. Euphemism is sometimes figuratively called Ã¢â¬Å"a whitewashing device. Euphemism is used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conveniently more acceptable one. For example the word to die has the following
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
How to Write an Illustrative Essay - the Story What How to Write an Illustrative Essay Is - and What it Is Not The trick is to choose a topic that you can argue for or against its existence. Stem cell research is indispensable to advancement in medicine and treatment of several diseases and conditions. Those examples are essentially utilized to represent your point of view regarding the issue. Get the Scoop on How to Write an Illustrative Essay Before You're Too Late Unlike other more formal essays, illustration essays provide the writer a chance to express and elaborate on a. Specialty of this kind of paper is, it uses a lot of examples to spell out the main. Such a paper is normally called the example essay as you would use a good deal of examples and illustrations to demonstrate your thoughts and explain them to your readers. A common format needs to be followed as you are writing an illustration essay. Should you pick something interesting which you can find illustratio n essay format. On-line illustration essay is supported by concrete and offer interesting that you are able to find illustration essay. Normally, the introduction includes a lead-in and a thesis statement. Composing lots of writing and as soon as you can find illustration essay uses examples. Who Else Wants to Learn About How to Write an Illustrative Essay? Furthermore, a personal statement isn't a bit of academic writing. Therefore, many students and employees decide to obtain inexpensive essay rather than writing it themselves. Think about this procedure as only an artist doing his job. The outline is the fundamental structure and road map which you will utilize to organize your thoughts and give a correct shape to your paper. Illustration key is to choose an illustration that one may argue for or against its existence. Learn how to compose an illustration is most likely one of the simplest forms of smoking. Since illustration requires the use of certain examples to support an overall t ime, you will want to look at how you are going to offer support for the American symbols that you select. You're able to use a hyperlink or quotation to find out more. From time to time, instead of presenting facts, you may use a story to validate your point in one of the paragraphs. Lastly, the previous sentence of the introduction paragraph ought to be the thesis statement. It can be difficult to use a productive evidence. The solution needs to be proper and feasible. You do not have to be concerned about your personal details that may be viewed, as we handle the matter on a safe network. Need help you wish to show, writing service. Additionally, a customer may ask the writer to submit part of the job for review and, if needed, ask her or him to make corrections. What Is So Fascinating About How to Write an Illustrative Essay? It is possible to also read your essay to other individuals to receive their feedback. Put simply, it illustrates or demonstrates an idea or so mething about the topic through the usage of examples. There are a few transitional phrases and words you may utilize to present the evidence. Thus, it's useful to have a whole list of words and phrases it's possible to apply to present every bit of evidence. Among other kinds of essays, it is among the simplest to write. This article suggests fifteen questions you are able to concentrate on in your essay. Once you are finished with your research on the subject of your interest, develop a step-by-step instruction on another paper. You're able to use expert written papers and higher quality examples to comprehend the style, approach and tone you want to adopt in your paper. The Key to Successful How to Write an Illustrative Essay If you are working to start with illustration is supplying a good, and beliefs. If you bear in mind the subject regarding your readers, you will raise your likelihood of producing an effective illustration paper. A very long narrative about your i ndividual feelings about winter may appear relevant to the topic, but it doesn't prove that the majority of people hibernate. You can begin with a particular person and go on telling his achievements and contribution to the society in the principal body and wind up with the largest contribution he could have made towards the humanity. An illustration essay is utilised to show your point by way of examples. Discover what topic will be interesting that you write about. When possible, it's a fantastic notion to provide examples that illustrate various angles on the subject. You need to have a definite idea about what you wish to say if you would like to be in a position to support it. Make sure to wholly explain all the examples you're using. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Customer Perceived Value Ã¢â¬â A Literature Review Introduction The concept of value exists back from the days where people begun engaging in exchange activities, however, it was only recently when both academics and practitioners realised the importance of delivering superior value to customers in order to achieve competitive advantage (Ulaga and Chacour, 2001; Khalifa, 2004; Lindgreen and Wynstra, 2005; Hansen et al. ,2008). In the following section, a literature review upon the issue of customer perceived value will be performed by looking at the key theories developed in an attempt to address this topic. Literature Review There have been various different contributions when it comes down on defining customer perceived value. For example, some academics tend to look upon the issue of creating value from a functional point of view whereas some others prefer to focus mainly on the monetary value of the equation. Nevertheless, despite the relative differences that exist within the various definitions one can identify common grounds between them such as the importance of competition, the multiple components of value and the subjectivity of value perceptions (Eggert and Ulaga, 2002). Broadly speaking, customer perceived value is the difference between the total perceived benefits such as product, service, personnel and image values; and the total perceived costs such as monetary, time, energy and psychic costs (Lapierre, 2000; Kotler and Keller, 2006; McDougall and Levesque, 2000). CPV=Total Benefits (product, service, personnel, image)Total Costs (monetary, time, energy, psychic) The evolving literature on customer perceived value is concerned with theory and methods of adding value to the customer either by attempting to enhance some, or if possible all of the elements of the perceived benefits shown above; or by trying to reduce the perceived costs of the equation. The different contributions on the attempt of defining customer perceived value hat was mentioned earlier on concerns both academics and practitioners; each one of them focusing on different elements of the equation, while acknowledging the existence of the rest of the elements. Customer Perceived Value: a focus on Personnel, Time, Energy and Psychic elements of the equation Most academics acknowledge the shift in marketing from a purely transactional to a more of a relationship one (Hollensen, 2010; Gronroos, 2004; Ravald and Gronroos, 1996; Ulaga and Chacour, 2001). As a consequence, some major contributors on the literature of customer perceived value engage upon the issue of value from a relationship point of view. In particular, while acknowledging major elements of the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value equation such as the product quality and features for instance, the focus from a relationship approach falls mainly upon the elements of personnel, time, energy and psychic. CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value from such an approach may be enchanted by training our personnel to engage in effective close relationships with customers; before, during and after each transaction in order to enchant positively their experience of acquiring a product or service. At the same time, this creates opportunities for long term relationships which would consequently, if handled well, develop customer loyalty and reduce the perceived costs of customers by eliminating psychic costs such as their perceived risk of acquiring new products or services; or by reducing time and energy efforts of searching for alternatives. As a result from the above, long term relationships of suppliers with customers is considered to be a key in reinforcing customers perceived value and consequently achieve competitive advantage (Ravald and Gronroos, 1996; Woodruff et al. , 1997; Gronroos, 2004; Lindgreen and Wynstra, 2005). Customer Perceived Value: a focus on Product and Service elements of the equation While acknowledging the contribution and importance of a relationship approach and its effect on customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value, some academics draw their attention on product and service quality elements through the so alled total quality management (Kotler and Keller, 2006). More specifically, there have been strong arguments based on extensive research which support the theory that factors affecting product and service quality are indirectly affecting customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value and are therefore positively related and extremely important in enhancing the value equation (Groth and Dye, 1999; Heinonen, 200 4; Yu and Fang, 2009; Jayawardhena, 2010). On the other hand, there has been criticism on the above argument of product and service quality models, arguing that elements of extreme importance such as the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of costs and price have not been taken into account while evaluating total customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value (Ravald and Gronroos, 1996; Ulaga and Chacour, 2001). Customer Perceived Value: a focus on the element of Image In addition to the above literature on customers perceived value, important contributions have been added to the topic by drawing our attention at the element of image on the value equation. The corporate image, the brand of an organisation and its reputation in general offer unique propositions to a product or service and consequently, customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value is high and are therefore willing to pay extra even if the features or quality of these unique products or services do not support the price paid (Hansen et al. 2008; Yu and Fang, 2009). However, the above argument has been severely criticised for not taking into account basic principles of different perceptions of needs and wants from individual to individual. This takes us back on the famous pyramid of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs, identifying that each individual has different needs and wants that need to be satisfied and that individuals are not homogeneous; therefore each customer perceive different values within the same product or service (Ulaga and Chacour, 2001; Yu and Fang 2009). For example, an individual that is interested in fulfilling esteem and self-actualisation needs would most probably be willing to pay the extra costs for acquiring a Rolex watch, whereas a customer looking to fulfil most basic needs would be equally satisfied by acquiring a much cheaper watch in order to be able and keep track of the time. Consequently, it becomes evident from this example that the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of value for the Rolex watch differs from one individual to nother. The formerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived benefits of acquiring the Rolex watch exceeds the perceived costs because he/she attempts to satisfy esteem and self actualisation needs and therefore the value of this product is high; whereas the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived benefits of acquiring the same watch are inferior to his/her perceived costs because he/she is only looking to satisfy basic needs and consequently, the perceived value for the exact same watch in this case is negative. Conclusion Drawing on a conclusion from the above literature that has emerged in respect to the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value, one can identify clearly that the arguments put forward are not substitutes to each other, on the contrary, all the different approaches are complementing one another in order to help both practitioners and academics explore the full potential of the multiple components of value. Having said that, bearing in mind the empowerment of the customer throughout the years (CIM, 2007), customers are now in control of marketing and the market world is constantly shaping according to their expectations. Therefore, according to my personal opinion and based on Gronroos and other academicsÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution in relationship marketing; I am deeply convinced that we need to draw our attention in building effective long term relationships with customers in order to help us forecast their expectations and be able to enhance their perceived value of a product or service effectively and efficiently, without taking important elements such as quality and features out of the equation. REFERENCES CIM, (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"TomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s word: Re-evaluating the role of marketingÃ¢â¬ , The Marketer Eggert, A. nd Ulaga, W. (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"Customer perceived value: a substitute for satisfaction in business markets? Ã¢â¬ , Journal of Business Industrial Marketing, Vol. 17, No. 2/3, pp. 107-118 Flint, D. J. , Woodruff, R. B. and Gardial, S. F. (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"Customer Value Change in Industrial Marketing Relationships: A Call for New Strategies and ResearchÃ¢â¬ , Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 26, pp. 163-175 Gronroos, C. (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"The relationship marketing process: communication, interaction, dialogue, valueÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Business Industrial Marketing, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 99-113 Groth, J. C. and Dye, R. T. (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Service quality: perceived value, expectations, shortfalls and bonusesÃ¢â¬ , Managing Service Quality, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 274-285 Hansen, H. , Samuelsen, B. M. and Silseth, P. R. (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"Customer perceived value in B-t-B service relationships: Investigating the importance of corporate reputationÃ¢â¬ , Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 37, pp. 206-217 Heinonen, K. (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"Reconceptualizing customer perceived value: the value of time and placeÃ¢â¬ , Managing Service Quality, Vol. 14, No. 2/3, pp. 05-215 Hollensen, S. (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing Management: A Relationship ApproachÃ¢â¬ , 2nd ed. Edinburgh: FT Prentice Hall Jayawardhena, C. (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"The impact of service encounter quality in service evaluation: evi dence from a business-to-business contextÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Business Industrial Marketing, Vol. .25, No. 5, pp. 338-348 Khalifa, A. S. (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"Customer value: a review of recent literature and an integrative configurationÃ¢â¬ , Management Decision, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 645-666 Kotler, P. and Keller, K. L. (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing ManagementÃ¢â¬ , 12th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall Lapierre, J. (2000), Ã¢â¬Å"Customer-perceived value in industrial contextsÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Business Industrial Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 2/3, pp. 122-140 Lindgreen, A. and Wynstra, F. (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"Value in business markets: What do we know? Where are we going? Ã¢â¬ , Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 34, pp- 732-748 McDougall, G. H. G. and Levesque, T. (2000), Ã¢â¬Å"Customer satisfaction with services: putting perceived value into the equationÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 392-410 Ravald, A. and Gronroos, C. 1996), Ã¢â¬Å"The value concept and relationship marketingÃ¢â¬ , European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 19-30 Ulaga, W. and Chacour, S. (2001), Ã¢â¬Å"Measuring Customer-Perceived Value in Business Markets: A Prerequisite for Marketing Strategy Development and ImplementationÃ¢â¬ , Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 30, pp. 525-540 Yu, H. and Fang, W. (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Relative impacts from product quality, service quality, and experience quality on customer perceived value and intention to shop for the coffee shop marketÃ¢â¬ , Total Quality Management, Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 1273-1285